Scientists have described how lightning occurs. According to experts, a natural phenomenon is selected as high as possible to the surface of the Earth in order to hit it.
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Lightning is a high-strength electrical discharge that occurs between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. Usually air has dielectric properties – it is used for the interlayer between the capacitor plates. But sometimes breakdowns occur in it. This happens when a large charge accumulates on the plates, which cannot withstand and passes through the layer of air between the plates. From this point of view, lightning is a breakdown of a large capacitor, its plates are thunderclouds and the Earth's surface. The former begin to accumulate a charge before the discharge as a result of the friction of dust particles and ice crystals against each other. At a certain moment, it exceeds the critical one, and the sky is illuminated with light, and lightning strikes the ground.
Modern data show that approximately 45-50 of these natural phenomena occur in the world per second. Lightning can destroy not only structures, but also harm nature, provoking forest fires. Electric current has a property that looks for the shortest path to the surface of the Earth, for this reason it hits the highest point of all space. However, this choice depends on the place where the lightning was created: the discharge will not reach a point located several kilometers away. To predict where a natural phenomenon hits, it is necessary to accurately determine the point of its formation and calculate the shortest discharge path to the Earth's surface. For this reason, it is necessary to observe safety measures during a thunderstorm and not be in an open space where a person is the highest point.