In 2003, Oxford University professor Nick Bostrom hypothesized that our reality is a computer simulation created by other intelligent civilizations.
Kipping argues that if our universe is a simulation, most of the simulated realities would be sterile due to the “reduction in computational resources of each level of simulation.” The scientist also concluded that if the hypothesis of no simulations were correct, the probability that we live in a universe without simulations would be 100 percent.
However, Kipping notes that humanity has not yet created simulations of reality. Therefore, the probability that we are surrounded by a simulation is equal to the probability that we are in the physical world.
Scientists have previously solved the problem of mysterious matter inside the distant galaxy Dragonfly 44 (DF44). Experts at the Kaptein Astronomical Institute in the Netherlands used data from the Hubble Space Telescope to prove that DF44 is not really that different from other galaxies.