The Perseverance successfully reached Mars 10: 07
(CNN) – The rover Perseverance has just become the fifth NASA rover to land (amartizar) safely on the surface of Mars after surviving the "Seven minutes of terror."
This is the most sophisticated rover the agency has sent to the Red Planet. It will collect data and look for signs of ancient life in a crater that once contained a lake about 3.9 billion years ago.
The rover has made a journey through space since its liftoff from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in late July. It traveled more than 470.7 million kilometers on its journey from Earth.
5 facts about the arrival of the Perseverance rover to Mars 1: 26
The Perseverance rover is the first NASA mission to search for signs of ancient life on another planet . Precisely, to help answer the big question: was there ever life on Mars? The rover will explore Jezero Crater, the site of an ancient lake that existed 3.9 billion years ago, in search of microfossils in the rocks and soil at that site.
Alongside the Perseverance voyage is an experiment to fly a helicopter, called Ingenuity, for the first time on another planet.
1 of 24 | On February 18, NASA's Perseverance rover will arrive on Mars. Look at the gallery → | This perspective of the Valles Marineris hemisphere of Mars, taken on July 9, 2013, is actually a mosaic comprising 102 images from the Viking Orbiter. In the center is the Valles Marineris canyon system, more than 2,000 kilometers long and up to 8 kilometers deep. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / NASA)
2 of 24 | This self-portrait of the Curiosity Mars rover, taken in 2016, shows the rover at the Quela drill site, in the Murray Buttes area, at the bottom of Mount Sharp. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / MSSS / NASA)
3 of 24 | This photo of a preserved river channel on Mars was captured by an orbiting satellite. It has overlapping colors to show different elevations. Blue is low and yellow is high. (Credit: NASA)
4 of 24 | The Mars Express mission of the European Space Agency captured this image of the Korolev crater, more than 80 kilometers wide, in 2018. It is filled with icy water, near the north pole. (Credit: ESA / DLR / FU Berlin
5 of 24 | The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft used its HiRISE camera to obtain this image of an area with unusual texture on the south floor of Gale Crater. (Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Univ. Of Arizona)
6 of 24 | Cold lava helped preserve the imprint of dune movement that once occurred in a region of southeastern Mars. But it also resembles the "Star Trek" symbol (Credit: NASA)
7 of 24 | Although Mars is not geologically active like Earth, the surface features have been largely shaped by the wind. Precisely, those that have been carved by the wind like those shown in the image, called yardangs , are common on the red planet. On the sand, the wind forms waves and small dunes. In the thin atmosphere of Mars, the light is not scattered much, so the shadows cast by the yardangs are sharp and dark. (Credit : JPL-Caltech / University of Arizona / NASA) __ IMAGE__7 8 of 24 | These small hematite-rich solidifications are near the Fram crater, visited by NASA's Opportunity rover in April 2004. The area shown is 3 centimeters wide. The photo comes from the microscopic imager on Opportunity's robotic arm, with color information added from the rover's panoramic camera. These minerals suggest that Mars had a watery past. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / Cornell / USGS / NASA)
9 of 24 | This image shows the seasonal flows in Valles Marineris on Mars, called Recurrent Sloping Lines, or RSLs. These landslides on Mars appear on the slopes during spring and summer. (Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Univ. Of Arizona)
10 of 24 | Mars is known to have sandstorms surrounding the planet. These images taken by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter in 2001 show a drastic change in the planet's appearance as the haze generated by sandstorm activity in the south was distributed globally. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / MSSS / NASA)
11 of 24 | This composite image, whose horizon is the highest regions of Mount Sharp, was taken in September 2015 by NASA's Curiosity rover. In the foreground is a long ridge filled with hematite. A little further on there is a rolling plain rich in clay minerals. And a little further down is a multitude of rounded hills, all rich in sulfate minerals. The changing mineralogy in these layers suggests an environment that changed early on Mars, although all involve exposure to water billions of years ago. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / MSSS / NA
12 of 24 | InSight's seismometer first recorded a "martemoto" in April 2019. (Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech)
13 of 24 | From its position in high on a ridge, Opportunity recorded this image of a dusty swirl on Mars traveling through the valley in 2016. The photo also captures the rover tracks leading up the northern slope of Knudsen Ridge, which is part of the southern edge of the Valley of Marathon. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / NASA)
14 of 24 | HiRISE captured layered deposits and a bright ice cap at the north pole of Mars. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / Univ. Of Arizona / NASA)
15 of 24 | Nili Patera is a region of Mars where dunes and waves move rapidly. HiRISE, aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, continues to monitor this area every two months for changes on seasonal and annual timescales. Credit: JPL-Caltech / Univ. Of Arizona / NASA)
16 of 24 | El NASA's Curiosity rover captured its highest resolution panorama of the Martian surface in late 2019. This includes more than 1,000 images and 1.8 billion pixels. (Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / MSSS)
17 of 24 | This image, which combines data from two instruments aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, shows an orbital view of the north polar region of Mars. The ice-rich polar cap is nearly 1,000 kilometers wide, and the dark bands are deep valleys. To the right of the center, a large canyon, Chasma Boreale, almost divides the ice sheet. Chasma Boreale is about the length of the famous Grand Canyon of the United States and up to almost 2 kilometers deep. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / MSSS / NASA)
18 of 24 | A recent and drastic impact crater dominates this image taken by the HiRISE camera in November 2013. The crater spans approximately 30.5 meters and is surrounded by a large lightning blast zone. Because the terrain where the crater formed is dusty, the recent crater appears blue in the enhanced color of the image, due to the removal of reddish dust in that area. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / Univ. Of Arizona / NASA)
19 of 24 | This dark mound, called Ireson Hill, is located in the Murray formation at the bottom of Mount Sharp, near a location where NASA's Curiosity rover examined a linear sand dune in February 2017. (Credit: NASA / JPL -Caltech / MSSS
20 of 24 | Are cookies and cream on Mars? No, they are just polar dunes dusted with ice and sand. (Credit: CaSSIS / ESA / Roscosmos)
21 of 24 | The cloud in the center of this image is actually a dust tower that occurred in 2010 and was captured by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Blue and white clouds are water vapor. (Credit: MSSS / JPL-Caltech / NASA)
22 of 24 | HiRISE took this image of a kilometer-long crater in the southern hemisphere of Mars in June 2014. The crater shows frost on all its south-facing slopes in late winter as Mars heads into spring (Credit: JPL-Caltech / University of Arizona / NASA)
23 of 24 | The two most earthquakes Large ones detected by NASA's InSight appear to have originated in a region of Mars called Cerberus Fossae. Scientists had previously detected signs of tectonic activity here, including landslides. This image was taken by the HiRISE camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter. (Credit: JPL-Caltech / University of Arizona / NASA)
24 of 24 | This image is the first photograph ever taken from the surface of Mars. It was captured on July 20, 1976 by the Viking 1 lander, shortly after it landed on the planet. (Credit: NASA) He arrived from Colombia without knowing English and today he takes NASA's Perseverance to Mars: Diana Trujillo's story Landing of the Perseverance rover on Mars: "7 minutes of terror"
The Perseverance rover starred in a new NASA landing on Mars. But first, he had to go through the infamous "seven minutes of terror."
publicity OPINION | The seven minutes of terror that will make me sweat with the mission to Mars
The one way time it takes for radio signals to travel from Earth to Mars is about 10.5 minutes. Meaning that the seven minutes it takes for the spacecraft to land on Mars elapsed without any help or intervention from NASA teams on Earth.
Ground teams tell the spacecraft when the EDL stage begins (input, descent and landing). From there, the spacecraft took over and mission control had an agonizing wait.
The Perseverance rover is the heaviest NASA has attempted to land with so far – over a metric ton.
The spacecraft hit the upper part of the atmosphere of Mars moving at 19,312 kilometers per hour. And it had to slow down to 0 kilometers per hour seven minutes later, when the rover landed gently on the surface.
This illustration shows the events that occur during the final minutes for NASA's Perseverance rover to land on the surface. Martian
The spacecraft's heat shield withstood a heating spike of 1,298.8 degrees Celsius 75 seconds after entering the atmosphere
The Perseverance rover was aiming to hit a 45-kilometer-wide ancient lake bed and the delta of a river. So far it is the most challenging landing site for a NASA spacecraft on Mars. Rather than being flat and smooth, the small landing site is littered with sand dunes, sheer cliffs, rocks, and small craters. The spacecraft has two upgrades, called Range Trigger and Terrain-Relative Navigation, to navigate this difficult and dangerous site.
Explore Jezero Crater, the future home of NASA's Perseverance rover
The Range Trigger indicated to the parachute 21, 48 meters wide when to deploy based on spacecraft position 240 seconds after entering atmosphere. Once the parachute was deployed, the heat shield was dislodged
The Perseverance rover's Terrain-Relative Navigation acts as a second brain. In fact, it uses cameras to take pictures of the ground as it quickly approaches and determines the safest place to land.
The rear shell and parachute were separated after the heat shield was detached. What happened when the spacecraft was 2 kilometers above the Martian surface. The engines for the landing on Mars, which include eight retro rockets, were fired to slow the descent from 305.7 kilometers per hour to approximately 2.7 kilometers per hour.
Then came the famous aerial crane maneuver that landed the Curiosity rover. Nylon cords will lower the vehicle 7.62 meters below the descent stage. After the Perseverance rover landed on the surface of Mars, the cables detached and the descent stage flew out and landed at a safe distance
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Once the rover has landed, the two-year mission of Perseverance will begin. First, it will go through an "exit" period to make sure it is ready.
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The Perseverance will search for evidence of ancient life. It will study the climate and geology of Mars and collect samples that will eventually return to Earth in the 2030s.
For that reason, the Perseverance rover is also the cleanest machine ever sent to Mars. It is designed not to contaminate Martian samples with microbes from Earth that could provide a false reading
Jezero crater was chosen as the home of Perseverance, because billions of years ago the basin was the site of a lake and delta of a river. The rocks and soil in this basin could provide fossilized evidence of past microbial life. As well as more information on what ancient Mars looked like.
“Perseverance's sophisticated scientific instruments will not only help in the search for fossilized microbial life. They will also expand our knowledge of Martian geology and its past, present and future, "Ken Farley said in a statement. Farley is one of the scientists on the Mars 2020 project
This mosaic of images collected by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a possible route that the Perseverance rover could take through Jezero crater.
The path that the Perseverance rover will traverse is approximately 15 miles long, an "epic journey" that will take years, Farley pointed out. However, what scientists might discover about Mars is worth the trip. To achieve its goals, Perseverance will drive 0.16 kilometers per hour, three times faster than previous rovers.
The rover also carries instruments that could aid further exploration on Mars in the future. Among them is MOXIE, the Mars On-Site Oxygen Resource Utilization Experiment. This experiment, about the size of a car battery, will attempt to convert Martian carbon dioxide into oxygen.
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This could not only help NASA scientists learn how to produce rocket fuel on Mars, but also oxygen that could be used during future human exploration of the red planet
Ingenuity, the first helicopter on another planet
The Perseverance rover does not travel to Mars on its own. On exploration is Ingenuity, which will be the first helicopter to fly over another planet
After landing, the rover will also find a nice, flat surface to drop the Ingenuity helicopter. So you have a place to use as a helipad for your possible five test flights over a 30-day period. This will occur within the first 50 to 90 suns, or Martian days, of the mission
Perseverance will be able to observe Ingenuity flight
Once Ingenuity settles to the surface, Perseverance will drive to a safe distance from a distance . At that point, you will use your cameras to observe Ingenuity's flight.
Ingenuity weighs just 1.8 kilograms and has four carbon fiber blades, solar cells, and batteries.
Mars has an incredibly thin atmosphere. Because of this, Ingenuity's design had to be lightweight and include rotors larger and faster than those of typical helicopters on Earth to lift it into the air.
If the Ingenuity is successful, it could pave the way for more robotic aircraft advanced missions will be used in future missions to Mars, both robotic and human, according to NASA.