COP28 is being held in Dubai from November 30 to December 12.
COP28: climate summit in Dubai
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COP28: climate summit in Dubai
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The most prominent of these delegates are those trying to move forward on the overarching issue: the draft final agreement which must be adopted by consensus by December 12.
A first version was debated until late Friday evening, immediately marked, according to one participant, by a standoff over the exit or reduction of fossil fuels: oil, gas and coal.
Everyone remained on their traditional positions, said this source, with Saudi Arabia pleading for the massive deployment of carbon capture techniques while the European Union defended the exit from fossils.
On Saturday, 50 oil and gas companies, representing 40% of global production, committed to decarbonizing their production operations by 2050, the UAE presidency of COP28, led by the company's boss, announced on Saturday as a victory National Adnoc.
But the commitment does not cover emissions from the combustion of oil and gas by their customers, which is the majority. And it did not attract any positive comments from NGOs.
For Andreas Sieber, of the NGO 350.org, this initiative diverts attention to the need to significantly reduce the production as well as the consumption of fossil fuels this decade.
The small island countries, at the forefront of the fight against hydrocarbons, were joined on Saturday by Colombia, the first continental country to demand a treaty with them on the non-proliferation of fossil fuels.
After carbon dioxide (CO2), methane is the second greenhouse gas contributing the most to global warming, accounting for 30%. This is the natural gas that escapes from gas pipelines, coal mines and our gas cookers, but also from the stomachs of cows or from the decomposition of straw in rice fields.
After years of inaction, states and companies are starting to adopt reduction plans, often by 2030.
To lower the temperature, we simply have to lower the methane, the Prime Minister of Barbados, Mia Mottley, influential in the COPs despite the small size, launched on Saturday from the podium of his country.
The new thing is that China and the United States are finally collaborating on the subject.
Reducing methane is regularly described as relatively easy and immediately very effective against warming. For companies, it would be enough to put an end to gas flaring. A commitment which is part of the charter signed on Saturday by the 50 oil and gas companies.
Around twenty countries called on Saturday to triple the world's nuclear energy capacities by 2050.
Saturday was launched by a call from around twenty countries to triple nuclear energy capacities in the world by 2050 compared to 2020.
The announcement illustrates the spectacular renewed interest in the atom, an almost carbon-free source of electricity, but which has suffered after the Fukushima accident in 2011.
No credible strategy, neither nationally nor globally, allows us to move away from coal and fossils by relying solely on renewables.
A quote from Emmanuel Macron, French president
In addition to the United States and Canada, the twenty signatories include pro-nuclear European countries, according to a list published by the United States, as well as South Korea, Ghana, the Emirates which have built their first reactors, and Japan, which is relaunching its power stations.
But China and Russia, the leading manufacturers in the world, but rivals of the West, have not signed.
Here again, the appeal is in no way binding within the framework of the UN, but serves to give signals of cooperation and to establish balance of power in negotiations.