Imagine being at home and your mobile, as if by magic, charged through the air. This idea, which a priori may seem somewhat futuristic, is getting closer to becoming a reality. Xiaomi has introduced a technology that supposedly allows users to charge several electronic devices at the same time remotely, without having to resort to tedious cables or wireless charging cradles. In addition, Chen Jin, general director of Lenovo's mobile phone division in China, has revealed on the Weibo social network a technology prototype called Motorola One Hyper that would also allow devices to be charged over the air. But at the moment it is only about promises and we will still have to wait to see if they finally materialize in a commercial product.
Xiaomi's new technology is called Mi Air Charge and, according to the company, it could charge several devices with a power of five watts in a radius of several meters. Fabio Arena, product marketing director of Xiaomi in Spain, recalls that this technology "is still under development." "We do not want this charge to be an exclusive technology of the smartphone but we want to take it to other devices," he says. The Chinese brand claims that it will be used to charge smart watches, bracelets and other wearables . In fact, Xiaomi predicts that soon other devices such as speakers or table lamps will also work without cables.
Both the charge and the battery of mobile phones have changed a lot in recent years. Roberto Vieito Raña, vice-secretary of the Professional College of Computer Engineering of Galicia (CPEIG), recalls that the first mobiles for general use were devices with very limited functionalities, "basically that of being a portable telephone of reduced dimensions that also allowed shipping of short text messages ”. Therefore, according to account, its energy consumption was also quite limited and made it possible to use more basic batteries than the current ones and with lower technical requirements in terms of characteristics such as capacity and durability.
In 1973 there was the first call since a mobile phone . Martin Cooper called his biggest rival in the industry, Joel Engel of AT & T's Bell Labs, from a New York street. The device was a prototype Motorola DynaTac 8000X that weighed 794 grams, was about 13 inches tall counting the antenna, and 3.5 inches thick. This hulk took 10 hours to charge and only had half an hour of battery life. "Something that today is unthinkable," says José Gandica, Motorola Iberia product manager.
Especially considering that currently "it is possible to enjoy batteries of up to 5,000 mAh, which means that we can have an autonomy of up to two days on the mobile with a single charge". Gandica ensures that the Moto G9 Plus allows the user to be connected for up to two days without having to charge the device and includes a charger with which an extra 12 hours of power can be obtained with just 10 minutes of charging.
The passage of mobile phones Basic to smartphones meant a huge increase in the amount of energy needed for these terminals to work. Vieito, who is also a collaborator of the General Council of Professional Associations in Computer Engineering (CCII), explains that smartphones incorporated, among other features, processors that consumed more and large screens and resolution. This generational leap meant the need for batteries "of greater capacity, lower weight, shorter charging time and better resistance to charge and discharge cycles." Lithium-ion batteries met all these requirements, which is why they were imposed as the standard and still are today, according to the expert.
Manufacturers have been adapting batteries to the needs of users. For example, designing smartphones that charge faster and faster. Terminals such as Oppo's Reno Ace or Realme 7 Pro allow the battery to be filled in just half an hour. Realme announced a few months ago to be working on 125 W fast charging technologies. With them, according to the company, a 5G mobile with a 4000 mAh battery can reach a 33% charge in just three minutes. “The most important thing is that this charging system controls that the temperature of the smartphone is always below 40 degrees to avoid overheating. Security is very important and that is why we developed a charging algorithm with five different layers of security protection so that the hardware does not deteriorate during the entire charging process and the useful life of the battery ”, they affirm.
Intelligent use of the battery
But in addition to ultra-fast charging and having more and more milliamps, the new terminals are characterized by an intelligent use of the battery. Santiago Izquierdo, head of technology and platforms at Samsung Electronics, indicates that the greatest achievement is precisely that our mobile phone is more efficient depending on the type of task we perform. He gives as an example what happens when using the new Galaxy S21. "If we are seeing content that demands a higher update frequency, the use of the battery will be higher, but this always adapts to the type of task we are doing for greater energy efficiency," he says. Processors have also evolved to run on less power: “The Galaxy S21's processor is five nanometers, which is a step up from previous models. The S10 and S20 had seven nanometers. ”
What other achievements have smartphone manufacturers achieved that were unthinkable a few years ago? Today we can already fill the battery of several mobiles using wireless charging. It is an electromagnetic induction charging technology. Simply place the terminal on a base and it begins to charge. Jesús Domingues, technical director of product of Huawei CBG Spain, considers that wireless charging between devices is one of the milestones of charging technology that "has gone quite unnoticed."
"A few years ago it was practically unthinkable that a terminal without plugging it into the mains, but today it is perfectly possible to see how the different devices can feed back energy to each other depending on the user's convenience ”, he says. For example, there are manufacturers that already allow charging the case of wireless headphones just by placing it on the back of the mobile. From Huawei they predict that universal reverse wireless charging will be increasingly common among all types of devices: "For example, from a PC to a smartphone or wearable. "
Now one of the clearest objectives is, according to Domingues , that "in three years we will be able to eliminate the cable from the charging process." "But it is something that could only happen if we manage an evolution towards other types of batteries based on the improvement or replacement of the materials that currently make them up," he adds. Different companies are exploring how to make it possible. For example, the expert mentions that studies are being carried out with lighter materials or using certain liquid compounds.
Predicting when it will be possible to charge the mobile in the air is difficult. This is assured by the experts consulted, who agree that progress is being made in the right direction. From Realme they indicate that it does not seem that it will be something imminent: “There is still a lot of work ahead for this type of technology to be 100% operational and to be efficient in smartphones or consumer gadgets , especially when we talk about high-end products. quality and price. ”
Perhaps the day will come when it is not even necessary to charge the mobile or it is enough to fill the battery once a month? This may never happen. But it must not be forgotten that in recent years some advances have been made that were unthinkable decades ago. "It is difficult to determine when will be that moment when we will not have to charge the battery for the whole month, but I am convinced that with the continuous advances in the technological world we are on the way for that to happen one day", concludes Gandica.
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