NASA announced the beginning of a new solar cycle. According to the NOAA meteorological agency, the star entered an 11-year cycle, the 25th in a row, starting in 1749, when astronomers began to keep track of the appearance of sunspots.
Image via: wikipedia.org
The most noticeable manifestation of the Sun's activity is fluctuations in its magnetic field on the disk. For the first time, the 11-year cycle was discovered by the scientist Rudolf Wolf in 1843. Changes in the star are associated with magnetic fields, which are visually perceived as dark spots. There is a vertical component of the solar magnetic field, and a horizontal component is also noted. When they mix, they create sunspots, accompanied by coronal mass ejections. The latter cause disturbances in the form of the solar wind, which affects the Earth's magnetic field.
The sun, which has entered a new cycle, will peak in July 2025. For NASA, it is important to predict the activity of the star, since the US aerospace agency has planned missions to the Moon as part of the Artemis scientific program, which will be implemented in the next decade.